عنوان مقاله [English]
Drilling and blasting are considered to be one of the most widely used tunnel excavations due to their advantages such as flexibility. It is very useful to design an accurate and optimal blasting pattern to achieve high progress, lower cost and also to prevent out-of-plan phenomena. Blasting pattern design is a time-consuming process, and achieving an optimal blasting pattern requires repetition of designs and selection of the best pattern. Therefore, the existence of a computer tool can be useful in reducing the time of calculations and designs. In the present study, a software was developed to design the blasting pattern of underground spaces using 9 widely used methods including parallel and angular energy transfer methods, Norwegian, Holmberg and Persson, Gustafson, Lopez and Olofsson simplified models and Konya parallel and angular methods. In this software, project input including face dimension, substrate and explosive properties are taken from the user using forms. After entering the input and executing the project, the design results of the blasting pattern are calculated and provided to the user in two ways; It is displayed both graphically in the software and its details are stored in the user's system along with the project inputs. Also, the key parameters of blast pattern design, including powder factor and drilling factor, are calculated and displayed along with the results of blast pattern design, and the user can select the appropriate pattern according to the existing conditions. Finally, manual designs were used to validate the software results. Comparison of the results showed that the software provides a suitable layout for the holes in different methods and calculates the amount of powder factor and drilling factor with less than 12% deviation. Among them, the results of software design with manual design in Norwegian and Olofsson methods have the least deviation in terms of powder factor and drilling factor. Minor differences in results with manual design can be due to the rounding of numbers and the layout of product holes.
With the development of the present research software, the platform for receiving input information of a tunnel project in order to automatically design of blasting patterns is provided and blasting patterns are designed in 9 methods automatically. These patterns are displayed graphically in the software environment and report the key parameters of each pattern, including powder factor and drilling factor associated with that pattern. When the template is selected and approved by the user, the selected template is printed as an executable copy.