ارایه تعریفی از معماری کند و روش‌های طراحی آن، براساس مصادیق ایرانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار؛ دانشکده‌ی فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه

چکیده

تنوع، تعدد و گستردگی حضور مصادیق معماری کند در کشور ایران، مؤید اهمیت آنها در معماری ایران است. علیرغم سوابق پژوهشی متعدد درخصوص این مصادیق و نیز علیرغم تعدد نام‏های مطرح‌شده برای آنها، تعریف کامل و جامعی از این نوع معماری دردسترس نیست. این وضعیت مانع از درک همه‌جانبه معماری کند می‏شود. لذا هدف از مقاله پیشِ‌رو آن بوده که تعریفی جامع از این نوع معماری ارائه دهد. درحقیقت، مقاله بدنبال آن بوده که معماری کند را براساس دو وجه محصول و فرآیند طراحی آن تعریف کند. در وجه نخست، سعی شده که این نوع معماری، براساس مقولات شش‌گانه کاپون یعنی عملکرد، شکل، معنا، ساخت، بافت و انگیزه تعریف شود. در وجه دوم نیز، بدنبال معرفی روش‌های طراحی این نوع معماری در گذر تاریخ بوده است. مقاله حاضر برای تعریف معماری کند از تعریف مصداقی (اتکاء به مصادیق ایرانی معماری کند) و تعریف برپایه تقسیم (اتکاء به اقسام مختلف آن) بهره گرفته است. پژوهش حاضر برای گردآوری داده‌ها از متون نوشتاری و مراجعه مستقیم به مصادیق استفاده نموده است. نتایج نشان داده که تعریف معماری کند در وجه محصول آن، در مقوله عملکرد، برحسب نوع و تداوم عملکردی؛ در مقوله شکل برحسب شکل ورود به فضا، شکل سازمان فضایی، شکل فضاها و شکل پوشش؛ در مقوله معنا برحسب وسعت تاریخی؛ در مقوله ساخت برحسب نوع استفاده از راهکار کندن زمین، نوع فناوری کندن زمین و شیوه اجرایی؛ در مقوله بافت برحسب همجواری‌ها و مقیاس فضایی و در مقوله انگیزه برحسب مزایای زمین، با ویژگی‌های متعددی توأم است. علاوه‌براین، نتایج حاکی از آن بوده که سیر تحول فرآیندهای به‌کاررفته در طراحی این مصادیق می‌تواند در قالب الگوهای غریزی-تقلیدی، تجربی و علمی معرفی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Defining Troglodytic Architecture and its Design Methods Based on Iranian Examples

نویسنده [English]

  • J. Goudini
Assistant pro, architecture department, Razi uni
چکیده [English]

Summary:This article is intended to provide a comprehensive definition of troglodytic (underground architecture). Since architecture design includes two aspects of design products and design process, this article focuses on both aspects for its definition.
Introduction:The diversity, multiplicity and extent of the presence of examples of troglodytic architecture in Iran confirm their significance in Iranian architecture. Despite numerous research records about these examples and despite the multiplicity of names proposed for them, a holistic and comprehensive definition of this type of architecture is not available. This situation prevents a comprehensive understanding of troglodytic architecture. Therefore, the article seeks a comprehensive definition of this type of architecture and has addressed the two aspects mentioned in this regard. In the first aspect, an attempt has been made to define this type of architecture based on the six categories of Smith Capon, namely function, form, meaning, construction, texture, and spirit. In the second aspect, it has sought to introduce the design methods of this type of architecture throughout history.
Methodology and Approaches: The present article uses an extensional definition as well as an analytic definition to define troglodytic architecture. In the extensional definition, one refers to examples or instances of defining a phenomenon. In the analytic definition, which has much validity in logic and beyond, the phenomenon in question is defined by decomposition into different types. Therefore, this article has been conducted by relying on examples of Iranian architecture and its different types. The present study has used written texts and direct references to examples to collect data.
Results and Conclusions: The results show that the definition of troglodytic architecture in the first aspect that is the product of this type of architecture, can express several features of troglodytic architecture through the introduction of six categories and also different criteria. For this purpose, the category of function is explained in terms of type and continuity of performance; the form category according to the shape of entering the space, the shape of the space organization, the shape of the spaces, and the shape of the cover; the category of meaning in terms of historical breadth; the construction category according to the type of land excavation solution, type of land excavation technology and implementation method; the texture category in terms of neighborhoods and spatial scale; and the spirit category in terms of land benefits. In addition, the results indicate that the evolution of the processes used in the design of these examples can be introduced in the form of three instinctive-imitative, experimental and scientific models.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Definition
  • Architecture design
  • Troglodytic architecture
  • Design methods
  • Iranian examples
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