عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of this research is to obtain the requirements of non-operational defenses in the design of metro station. This paper presents some criteria to reduce damages resulting from the enemy threats by using passive defense.
Subways as one of the critical and practical infrastructures with dual functions can be considered as a settlement for people during crisis and threat. The principles of safety and protection against natural and unnatural threats should be carefully regarded in the design of subways. Thus, to provide safety and protection against threats, the passive defense requirements in subways should be considered.
Methodology and Approaches
The research methodology is of descriptive-analytical type and the technique used in this research is Delphi. The statistical population of the research is all the experts in the field of passive defense and architecture, and 12 individuals, for instance, have been selected from these experts. The average of the views of the members of the Working Group 4 indicates a high agreement among them.
Results and Conclusions
The results of this research show that among the proposed architectural requirements of passive defense, the subway station is used as a refuge in the time of crisis with an average of 4.91 and has the highest score. The use of suitable bends with respect to engineering principles (90 degrees bends) with score or importance of 4.84 is the second requirement among the passive defense requirements. The maximum accessible radius to the station entrance is 500 meters. The third priority is the architectural requirements of the defense, and the provision of space and space to meet the essential needs and services of the people is the fourth priority. The necessity of self-sufficiency of ventilation systems, the existence of multiple ventilation ducts to deal with airborne bombs, emergency exits with the depth greater than the depth of the asylum seekers' location, adequate width and safety of tunnels for passage of persons, are the next priorities of these requirements. Finally, the necessary electrical systems and lighting of tunnels, the use of security and security systems, and the existence of an independent and emergency communication network for communication with the environment with score averages of 4.28, 4.18 and 4.11, respectively, are the last priorities of these requirements.